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Lacerations: A cut on your baby's skin caused usually by the scalpel in a cesarean section. Some may be deep enough to require sutures (stitches) or they may be glued, but the vast majority can be bandaged together. Infection is also a concern and the wound may be treated with antibiotic ointment. The location depends on how the cut occur and may depend on your baby's position in the uterus.

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Surgical injury: Although rare, accidental nicks to the baby's skin can occur during surgery.

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Infection: Infection can occur at the incision site, in the uterus and in other pelvic organs such as the bladder.


Hemorrhage or increased blood loss: There is more blood loss in a cesarean delivery than with a vaginal delivery. This can lead to anemia or a blood transfusion (1 to 6 women per 100 require a blood transfusion(1)).


Injury to organs: Possible injury to organs such as the bowel or bladder (2 per 1002).


Adhesions: Scar tissue may form inside the pelvic region causing blockage and pain. Adhesions can also lead to future pregnancy complications such as placenta previa or placental abruption(3).


Extended hospital stay: After a cesarean, the normal stay in the hospital is 3-5 days after the birth, if there are no complications.


Extended recovery time: The amount of time needed for recovery after a cesarean can range from weeks to months. Extended recovery can have an impact on bonding time with your baby (1 in 14 report incisional pain six months or more after surgery(4)).


Reactions to medications: There can be a negative reaction to the anesthesia given during a cesarean or negative reaction to pain medication given after the procedure.


Risk of additional surgeries: Includes possible hysterectomy, bladder repair or another cesarean.


Emotional reactions: Some women who have had a cesarean report feeling negatively about their birth experience and may have trouble with initial bonding with their baby (5).


iatrogenic: induced inadvertently by a physician or surgeon or by medical treatment or diagnostic procedures


Caesarean section: (also C-section, Cesarean section) is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliverone or more babies, or, rarely, to remove a dead fetus. A late-term abortion using Caesarean section procedures is termed a hysterotomy abortion and is very rarely performed. The first modern Caesarean section was performed by German gynecologist Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer in 1881.

A Caesarean section is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk, although in recent times it has also been performed upon request for childbirths that could otherwise have been natural.[1][2][3] In recent years, the rate has risen to a record level of 46% in China and to levels of 25% and above in many Asian, European and Latin American countries.[4] The rate has increased significantly in the United States, to 33 percent of all births in 2011, up from 21 percent in 1996, and in the rate in 2009 varied widely between hospitals (ranging from 6.9% to 69.9% of births).[5][6] Across Europe, there are significant differences between countries: in Italy the Caesarean section rate is 40%, while in the Nordic countries it is only 14%.[7] Medical professional policy makers find that elective cesarean can be harmful to the fetus and neonate without benefit to the mother, and have established strict guidelines for non-medically indicated cesarean before 39 weeks.[8]


C Section Injury Terms:



1 & 2Shearer El. Cesarean section: medical benefits and costs. Soc Sci Med 1993;37(10): 1223-31.

3Lydon-Rochelle M et al..First birth cesarean and placental abruption or previa at second birth. Obstet Gynecol 2000;97 (5 Pt 1):765-9.

4 & 5Declerq ER , Sakala C, Corry MP. Listening to Mothers: Report of the First National U.S .Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences. New York: Maternity Center Association, Oct 2002.

6ACOG. Evaluation of Cesarean Delivery. Washington, DC: ACOG, 2000.

7 & 8Annibale DJ et al. Comparative neonatal morbidity of abdominal and vaginal deliveries after uncomplicated pregnancies. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995;149(8):862-7.

9Van Ham MA, van Dongen PW, Mulder J. Maternal consequences of cesarean section. A retrospective study of intraoperative and postoperative maternal complications of cesarean during a 10-year period. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997; 74 (1): 1-6.

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7.     ^

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52.   ^ "Caesarean Section Rates Royal College of Physicians of Ireland:".

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54.   ^ "To push or not to push? It's a woman's right to decide". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 January 2011.

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91.   ^ See Chok Yaakov 470:2; Kaf ha-Chayim 470:3;

92.   ^ "Pidyon HaBen - Definition of Pidyon HaBen (Redemption of the Firstborn)". 19 October 2012.

93.   ^ "Kohanim forever from the sources, who is a cohen, the blessing of the Cohanim,. Mitvah of the cohen, Halacha, Temple service groups, pidyon - redemption of the firstborn".


Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...
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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Anesthesia: Loss of feeling or awareness, as when an anesthetic is administered before sur...

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Antibacterial: Anything that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or their ability...

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Bladder infection: Infection of the urinary bladder. Some people are at more risk for blad...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

C-section: Short for Cesarean section.Breech: The buttocks.

Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Catheter: A thin, flexible tube.

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

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Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.

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Obstetrics: The art and science of managing pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium (the time...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pulmonary embolism: Sudden closure of a pulmonary artery or one of its branches, caused by...

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Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...

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Resuscitation: The procedure of restoring to life, as in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CP...

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Rupture: A break or tear in any organ (such as the spleen) or soft tissue (such as the ach...

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Skull: The skull is a collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the hea...

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Superficial: In anatomy, on the surface or shallow. As opposed to deep. The skin is superf...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Transverse: In anatomy, a horizontal plane passing through the standing body so that the t...

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Tubes: The "tubes" are medically known as the Fallopian tubes. There are two Fallopian tub...

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Umbilicus: The vestige left behind on a newborn's belly when the umbilical cord is cut. A...

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Ureter: One of the two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Uterine lining: The inner layer of the uterus (womb); the cells that line the womb; anatom...

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Uterine rupture: A tear in the uterus. A uterine rupture is a very serious situation. Caus...

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Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...

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Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Vaginal discharge: Vaginal discharge is a fluid produced by glands in the vaginal wall and...

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Vertical: In anatomy, upright. As opposed to horizontal.

Delivery and Birth Terms:

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