Lacerations: A cut on your baby's skin caused usually by the scalpel in a cesarean section. Some may be deep enough to require sutures (stitches) or they may be glued, but the vast majority can be bandaged together. Infection is also a concern and the wound may be treated with antibiotic ointment. The location depends on how the cut occur and may depend on your baby's position in the uterus.
Surgical injury: Although rare, accidental nicks to the baby's skin can occur during surgery.
Infection: Infection can occur at the incision site, in the uterus and in other pelvic organs such as the bladder.
Hemorrhage or increased blood loss: There is more blood loss in a cesarean delivery than with a vaginal delivery. This can lead to anemia or a blood transfusion (1 to 6 women per 100 require a blood transfusion(1)).
Injury to organs: Possible injury to organs such as the bowel or bladder (2 per 1002).
Adhesions: Scar tissue may form inside the pelvic region causing blockage and pain. Adhesions can also lead to future pregnancy complications such as placenta previa or placental abruption(3).
Extended hospital stay: After a cesarean, the normal stay in the hospital is 3-5 days after the birth, if there are no complications.
Extended recovery time: The amount of time needed for recovery after a cesarean can range from weeks to months. Extended recovery can have an impact on bonding time with your baby (1 in 14 report incisional pain six months or more after surgery(4)).
Reactions to medications: There can be a negative reaction to the anesthesia given during a cesarean or negative reaction to pain medication given after the procedure.
Risk of additional surgeries: Includes possible hysterectomy, bladder repair or another cesarean.
Emotional reactions: Some women who have had a cesarean report feeling negatively about their birth experience and may have trouble with initial bonding with their baby (5).
iatrogenic: induced inadvertently by a physician or surgeon or by medical treatment or diagnostic procedures
Caesarean section: (also C-section, Cesarean section) is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliverone or more babies, or, rarely, to remove a dead fetus. A late-term abortion using Caesarean section procedures is termed a hysterotomy abortion and is very rarely performed. The first modern Caesarean section was performed by German gynecologist Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer in 1881.
A Caesarean section is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk, although in recent times it has also been performed upon request for childbirths that could otherwise have been natural. In recent years, the rate has risen to a record level of 46% in China and to levels of 25% and above in many Asian, European and Latin American countries. The rate has increased significantly in the United States, to 33 percent of all births in 2011, up from 21 percent in 1996, and in the rate in 2009 varied widely between hospitals (ranging from 6.9% to 69.9% of births). Across Europe, there are significant differences between countries: in Italy the Caesarean section rate is 40%, while in the Nordic countries it is only 14%. Medical professional policy makers find that elective cesarean can be harmful to the fetus and neonate without benefit to the mother, and have established strict guidelines for non-medically indicated cesarean before 39 weeks.
C Section Injury Terms:
1 & 2Shearer El. Cesarean section: medical benefits and costs. Soc Sci Med 1993;37(10): 1223-31.
3Lydon-Rochelle M et al..First birth cesarean and placental abruption or previa at second birth. Obstet Gynecol 2000;97 (5 Pt 1):765-9.
4 & 5Declerq ER , Sakala C, Corry MP. Listening to Mothers: Report of the First National U.S .Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences. New York: Maternity Center Association, Oct 2002.
6ACOG. Evaluation of Cesarean Delivery. Washington, DC: ACOG, 2000.
7 & 8Annibale DJ et al. Comparative neonatal morbidity of abdominal and vaginal deliveries after uncomplicated pregnancies. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995;149(8):862-7.
9Van Ham MA, van Dongen PW, Mulder J. Maternal consequences of cesarean section. A retrospective study of intraoperative and postoperative maternal complications of cesarean during a 10-year period. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997; 74 (1): 1-6.
3. ^ Finger, C. (2003). "Caesarean section rates skyrocket in Brazil. Many women are opting for Caesareans in the belief that it is a practical solution". Lancet 362 (9384): 628. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14204-3.PMID 12947949.
4. ^ "C-section rates around globe at ‘epidemic’ levels".AP / msnbc.com. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
5. ^ Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Michael R. Law, Beth A. Virnig (March 2013). "Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary Tenfold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality And Cost Issues". Health Aff 32 (3): 527–535. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1030. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
9. ^ Segen, J. C. (1992). The Dictionary of Modern Medicine: A Sourcebook of Currently Used Medical Expressions, Jargon and Technical Terms. Taylor & Francis. p. 102.ISBN 1850703213. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
11. ^ "As there was a cultural taboo against burying an undelivered woman in Roman and German societies, according to Lex Caesarea..." U Högberg, E Iregren, CH Siven, "Maternal deaths in medieval sweden: an osteological and life table analysis", Journal of Biosocial Science, 1987, 19: 495–503 Cambridge University Press
13. ^ "Bad Medicine: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed," by Christopher Wanjek, p. 5 (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)
14. ^ "...could not survive the trauma of a Caesarean" Oxford Classical Dictionary, Third Edition, "Childbirth"
15. ^ "Caesarean | Caesarian, adj. and n.". OED Online. June 2013. Oxford University Press. 13 June 2013 <>.
19. ^ a b Lurie, Samuel (2005). "The changing motives of cesarean section: from the ancient world to the twenty-first century". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics(Springer) 271 (4): 281–285. doi:10.1007/s00404-005-0724-4. PMID 15856269.
25. ^ Conner, Clifford D., A People's History Of Science : : Miners, Midwives, And "low Mechanicks", pg 3
30. ^ Stark, M.; Chavkin, Y.; Kupfersztain, C.; Guedj, P.; Finkel, A. R. (1995). "Evaluation of combinations of procedures in cesarean section". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 48 (3): 273. doi:10.1016/0020-7292(94)02306-J. edit
31. ^ Dodd, J. M.; Anderson, E. R.; Gates, S. (2008). "Surgical techniques for uterine incision and uterine closure at the time of caesarean section". In Dodd, Jodie M. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004732.pub2. edit
34. ^ Wei Ching T, Kanagalingam D, Hak Koon T (2003). "Rising Caesarean Section Rates–Where Do We Go From Here?". SGH Proceedings 12 (4): 208–12.
37. ^ Liu S, Liston RM, Joseph KS, Heaman M, Sauve R, Kramer MS (2007). "Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term". CMAJ176 (4): 455–60. doi:10.1503/cmaj.060870.PMC 1800583. PMID 17296957.
39. ^ Silver RM, Landon MB, Rouse DJ, et al. (2006). "Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries". Obstet Gynecol 107 (6): 1226–32.doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000219750.79480.84.PMID 16738145. (see also review by WebMD.com)
40. ^ Kennare R, Tucker G, Heard A, Chan A (2007). "Risks of adverse outcomes in the next birth after a first cesarean delivery". Obstet Gynecol 109 (2 Pt 1): 270–6.doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000250469.23047.73.PMID 17267823.
42. ^ Soet, Johanna E.; Brack, Gregory A.; DiIorio, Colleen (1 March 2003). "Prevalence and Predictors of Women's Experience of Psychological Trauma During Childbirth".Birth 30 (1): 36–46. doi:10.1046/j.1523-536X.2003.00215.x. PMID 12581038.
43. ^ Creedy, Debra K; Shochet, Ian M; Horsfall, Jan (1 June 2000). "Childbirth and the Development of Acute Trauma Symptoms: Incidence and Contributing Factors". Birth 27(2): 104–111. doi:10.1046/j.1523-536x.2000.00104.x.PMID 11251488.
45. ^ a b "Term Pregnancy: A Period of Heterogeneous Risk for Infant Mo... : Obstetrics & Gynecology". Retrieved 2012-07-12.
46. ^ "Neonatal Outcomes After Demonstrated Fetal Lung Maturity Bef... : Obstetrics & Gynecology". Retrieved 2012-07-12.
47. ^ "Academic Achievement Varies With Gestational Age Among Children Born at Term". Retrieved 2012-07-12.
48. ^ G Cassady, (1971), "Effect of cesarean section on neonatal body water spaces", New England Journal of Medicine
49. ^ Study: Early Repeat C-Sections Puts Babies At Risk. Npr.org (8 January 2009). Retrieved on 2011-07-26.
50. ^ "High infant mortality rate seen with elective c-section". Reuters Health - September 2006. Medicineonline.com. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
51. ^ "Focus on: caesarean section - NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement". Institute.nhs.uk. 8 October 2009.
54. ^ "To push or not to push? It's a woman's right to decide". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 January 2011.
55. ^ a b "La clinica dei record: 9 neonati su 10 nati con il parto cesareo". Corriere della Sera. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-05.[dead link]
56. ^ "Sagliocco denuncia boom di parti cesarei in Campania". Pupia.tv. 31 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-05.[dead link]
61. ^ Stephen Smith, "C-sections leap to 1 in 3 births in Bay State, to outstrip US", Boston Globe, 14 February 2008
62. ^ "China's C-Section Rate Highest Worldwide, WHO Study Says,"Medical News Today, 15 January 2010>
63. ^ Homer CS, Davis GK, Brodie PM, et al. (2001). "Collaboration in maternity care: a randomised controlled trial comparing community-based continuity of care with standard hospital care". BJOG 108 (1): 16–22.doi:10.1016/S0306-5456(00)00022-X.PMID 11212998.
64. ^ Hodnett ED; Hodnett, Ellen (2000). "Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth". In Hodnett, Ellen. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000062. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000062.PMID 10796108.
Hodnett ED; Henderson, Sonja (2008). "WITHDRAWN: Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth". In Henderson, Sonja. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD000062.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000062.pub2.PMID 18843605.
70. ^ MacKenzie IZ, Cooke I, Annan B (2003). "Indications for Caesarean section in a consultant obstetric unit over three decades". J Obstet Gynaecol 23 (3): 233–8.doi:10.1080/0144361031000098316.PMID 12850849.
71. ^ Cullinane M, Gray A, Hargraves C, Lansdown M, Martin I, Schubert M. Who operates when? – The 2003 Report of the Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
72. ^ Wagner, Marsden. Born in the USA: How a Broken Maternity System Must Be Fixed to Put Women and Children First (registration required). p. 42. ISBN 0-520-24596-2.
77. ^ Hawkins JL, Koonin LM, Palmer SK, Gibbs CP (1997). "Anesthesia-related deaths during obstetric delivery in the United States, 1979–1990". Anesthesiology 86 (2): 277–84. doi:10.1097/00000542-199702000-00002.PMID 9054245.
78. ^ a b Afolabi BB, Lesi FE, Merah NA (2006). "Regional versus general anaesthesia for Caesarean section". In Afolabi, Bosede B. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004350. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004350.pub2.PMID 17054201.
79. ^ Bucklin BA, Hawkins JL, Anderson JR, Ullrich FA (2005). "Obstetric anesthesia workforce survey: twenty-year update". Anesthesiology 103 (3): 645–53.doi:10.1097/00000542-200509000-00030.PMID 16129992.
80. ^ "Cesarean births, repeat (percent) - Health Indicators Warehouse". Healthindicators.gov.
81. ^ “Rates for Total Cesarean Section, Primary Cesarean Section and Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section (VBAC), United States, 1989–2006.” Childbirth Connection, 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
82. ^ USA (24 May 2012). "Comparison of a trial of labor with an elective... [N Engl J Med. 1996] - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
83. ^ a b "NIH Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) Conference - Panel Statement". Consensus.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-16.
84. ^ "Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights: Structured Abstract". Ahrq.gov. 16 September 2010.
86. ^ a b "Maternal, Infant, and Child Health - Healthy People". Healthypeople.gov. 13 September 2012.
87. ^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). "Guideline on Vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery". guideline.gov. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
88. ^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). "Guideline on Vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery: Major Recommendations". guideline.gov. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
89. ^ Zweifler J, Garza A, Hughes S, Stanich MA, Hierholzer A, Lau M (2006). "Vaginal birth after cesarean in California: before and after a change in guidelines". Ann Fam Med4 (3): 228–34. doi:10.1370/afm.544. PMC 1479438.PMID 16735524.
91. ^ See Chok Yaakov 470:2; Kaf ha-Chayim 470:3;
92. ^ "Pidyon HaBen - Definition of Pidyon HaBen (Redemption of the Firstborn)". Judaism.about.com. 19 October 2012.
Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...See the entire definition of Abdomen
Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...See the entire definition of Abdominal
Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...See the entire definition of Abdominal pain
Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.
Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...See the entire definition of Analysis
Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...See the entire definition of Anemia
Anesthesia: Loss of feeling or awareness, as when an anesthetic is administered before sur...See the entire definition of Anesthesia
Antibacterial: Anything that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or their ability...See the entire definition of Antibacterial
Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...See the entire definition of Artery
Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...See the entire definition of Benign
Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...See the entire definition of Bladder
Bladder infection: Infection of the urinary bladder. Some people are at more risk for blad...See the entire definition of Bladder infection
Blood clot: A mass of coagulated blood. A blood clot can block a major blood vessel, causi...See the entire definition of Blood clot
Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...See the entire definition of Blood clots
Bowel: The small and large intestine.
C-section: Short for Cesarean section.Breech: The buttocks.
Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.
Catheter: A thin, flexible tube.
Cervix: The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus, a hollow, ...See the entire definition of Cervix
Cesarean section:See C-section.
Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...See the entire definition of Chest
Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...See the entire definition of Complication
Conception: 1. The union of the sperm and the ovum. Synonymous with fertilization....See the entire definition of Conception
Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.
Cuts: Severed skin. Washing a cut or scrape with soap and water and keeping it clean and d...See the entire definition of Cuts
Dilation: The process of enlargement, stretching, or expansion. The word "dilatation" mean...See the entire definition of Dilation
Discharge: 1.The flow of fluid from part of the body, such as from the nose or vag...See the entire definition of Discharge
Elective: In medicine, something chosen (elected). An elective procedure is one that is ch...See the entire definition of Elective
Embolism: The obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot that tr...See the entire definition of Embolism
Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...See the entire definition of Emergency department
Epidural: Outside the dura, the outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membran...See the entire definition of Epidural
Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...See the entire definition of Essential
Fetus: An unborn offspring, from the embryo stage (the end of the eighth week after concep...See the entire definition of Fetus
Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...See the entire definition of Fever
Genital: Pertaining to the external and/or internal organs of reproduction.
Genital herpes: An infection by human herpes virus that is transmitted through intimate co...See the entire definition of Genital herpes
Gynecology: The branch of medicine that is particularly concerned with the health of the f...See the entire definition of Gynecology
Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...See the entire definition of Heart
Heart rate: The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate ...See the entire definition of Heart rate
Herpes: A family of viruses. Herpes also refers to infection with one of the human herpesv...See the entire definition of Herpes
HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...See the entire definition of HIV
Horizontal: In anatomy, a plane passing through the standing body. A person lying on a bed...See the entire definition of Horizontal
Hysterectomy: An operation to remove the uterus. Hysterectomies are most commonly performe...See the entire definition of Hysterectomy
Ileus: Obstruction of the intestine due to its being paralyzed. The paralysis does not nee...See the entire definition of Ileus
Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...See the entire definition of Incidence
Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.
Indication: 1. In medicine, a condition which makes a particular treatment or proce...See the entire definition of Indication
Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.
Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...See the entire definition of Infection
Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...See the entire definition of Injury
Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...See the entire definition of Kidney
Labor: Childbirth, the process of delivering a baby and the placenta, membranes, and umbil...See the entire definition of Labor
Laparoscopic: 1. Pertaining to the procedure of laparoscopy. 2. Pert...See the entire definition of Laparoscopic
Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...See the entire definition of Leg
Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...See the entire definition of Lungs
Malignant: 1. Tending to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant ...See the entire definition of Malignant
Maternal: 1. Pertaining to the mother as, for example, the maternal mortality rate....See the entire definition of Maternal
Maternal age: The age of the mother at the time of delivery. Advanced maternal age is usua...See the entire definition of Maternal age
Numb: Numb, or numbness is a loss of the sensation of feeling in an area of the body. Numb...See the entire definition of Numb
Obstetrics: The art and science of managing pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium (the time...See the entire definition of Obstetrics
Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...See the entire definition of Onset
Operation: In medicine, a surgical procedure. Many operations are named after persons. The...See the entire definition of Operation
Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...See the entire definition of Pain
Pelvic: Having to do with the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen, located between the h...See the entire definition of Pelvic
Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. Structures in the fe...See the entire definition of Pelvis
Postoperative: After surgery. As opposed to preoperative, before surgery.
Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...See the entire definition of Pregnancy
Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.
Pulmonary embolism: Sudden closure of a pulmonary artery or one of its branches, caused by...See the entire definition of Pulmonary embolism
Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is...See the entire definition of Red blood cells
Resuscitation: The procedure of restoring to life, as in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CP...See the entire definition of Resuscitation
Rupture: A break or tear in any organ (such as the spleen) or soft tissue (such as the ach...See the entire definition of Rupture
Skull: The skull is a collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the hea...See the entire definition of Skull
Superficial: In anatomy, on the surface or shallow. As opposed to deep. The skin is superf...See the entire definition of Superficial
Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...See the entire definition of Surgeon
Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...See the entire definition of Surgery
Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.
Transverse: In anatomy, a horizontal plane passing through the standing body so that the t...See the entire definition of Transverse
Tubes: The "tubes" are medically known as the Fallopian tubes. There are two Fallopian tub...See the entire definition of Tubes
Umbilicus: The vestige left behind on a newborn's belly when the umbilical cord is cut. A...See the entire definition of Umbilicus
Ureter: One of the two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter...See the entire definition of Ureter
Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...See the entire definition of Urinary
Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...See the entire definition of Urine
Uterine lining: The inner layer of the uterus (womb); the cells that line the womb; anatom...See the entire definition of Uterine lining
Uterine rupture: A tear in the uterus. A uterine rupture is a very serious situation. Caus...See the entire definition of Uterine rupture
Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...See the entire definition of Uterus
Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...See the entire definition of Vagina
Vaginal discharge: Vaginal discharge is a fluid produced by glands in the vaginal wall and...See the entire definition of Vaginal discharge
Vertical: In anatomy, upright. As opposed to horizontal.